PDF | 15+ minutes read | On Sep 10, , K. S. Reddy and others published Solar Power Generation. PDF | Negative environmental impact of fossil fuel consumption highlight ies have focused on using solar energy for electricity generation. PDF | Photovoltaic Energy Systems, including Modeling of Optical and Thermal Performance, Electrical Yield, Energy Balance, Effect on.
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The result is a constant massive release of energy. The process is nuclear fusion. Fuel for Thought Everything in the universe, including our Sun, is made of tiny atoms.
Atoms contain even smaller particles of protons and electrons that carry an electric charge. Energy from the Sun leaves the core and cools as it passes through the outer layers of gas. The energy, in the form of heat and light, enters space in every direction. It takes just over eight minutes for sunlight solar energy to travel 93 million miles and reach Earth!
Some of the energy bounces off Earth and back into space. Much of it is absorbed and converted to heat. Plants store a small amount of solar energy in their cells. What plants do with the solar energy makes nearly all life on Earth possible.
They transform solar energy to chemical energy by photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, plant cells absorb sunlight and carbon dioxide from the air. At the same time, plant cells remove oxygen from water and release it into the air.
The process produces sugars and starches that are either stored or used as food for the plant. Fuel for Thought Animals that lived millions of years ago ate plants, or ate animals that ate plants.
Their bodies stored chemical energy from the plants. After the plants and animals died, their chemical energy slowly turned into chemical energy in fossil fuels. That means solar energy absorbed by plants millions of years ago indirectly fuels our cars and heats our homes today! Ancient Greeks designed houses with window openings facing south, which is passive solar design.
Ancient Romans added glass to their windows to help absorb and retain heat. They even passed laws against building tall structures that blocked sunlight from neighbors. They built energy efficient homes in the Southwest. The Anasazi carved their homes in south-facing cliffs that had large rock overhangs.
In winter, when the Sun was low, their homes bathed in heat and light energy. They are nonrenewable energy sources.
Renewable sources, such as sunlight, replenish in a relatively short time. Listed below are examples of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources. However, fossil fuel supplies are limited. Some experts believe oil production will last only 35 years, while coal production may last years. The Sun comes up every day.
It is a free, renewable, and nonpolluting energy source. Fortunately, technology has improved the way we collect and store sunlight and how we use it as a global energy.
You may have noticed some homes and businesses with them on the rooftops. Thermal collectors absorb heat energy, also called thermal energy, from the Sun. They transfer it somewhere else to perform work. The collectors work well for heating water for swimming pools and hot water heaters.
Greenhouses allow us to control the environment in which plants grow. They protect plants from harsh winds, heavy rains, and even blizzards.
We control the amount of water plants get too, through irrigation systems.
We use greenhouses to grow many plants year round, including house and garden plants, herbs and vegetables, and flowers and trees. Farmers sow seeds in greenhouses in the dead of winter, so by spring, plants are ready for sale, or for planting in traditional farms.
Greenhouses are especially important for the produce industry. Grocery stores carry typical summer vegetables, like tomatoes, because farmers grow them year round in greenhouses. The plate lies inside an insulated box covered with clear glass.
Water-filled pipes run through the box to a storage tank. When sunlight passes through the glass, it heats the water in the pipes, which transfers to the storage tank. With this system, the water that flows through the pipes is the same water used for bathing and laundry.
It is a long, curved shiny panel, or mirror. Solar thermal power plants use rows and rows of them. For this purpose, the PVSYST modeling software [ 7 ] has been used, and a design with a new concept for the solar PV module is suggested, and its advantages over conventional design are discussed. The rationale behind the present work is to enhance the energy generation for the limited space availability.
In recent years several methods have been suggested.
For example, in concentrating solar power technology [ 8 ], the lens or mirror for concentration of sunlight is used by refracting the rays and focusing them in a small area. In another recent study, a 3D type of solar panels is also reported [ 9 ].
Here we present another way of enhanced solar energy with two layers of solar panels as discussed in more detail below. Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate the advantages of two layer solar panels with the same dimension and orientation lying one above the other.
Additionally, the cost benefit analysis is also described to highlight the advantages of considering the suggested solar panel configuration from the present study.
Methods The new design suggested in the present study is the result of several different design attempts using PVSYST software program. Before presenting the methodology, brief details of the software is presented in the following. The software program Among the various software programs, PVSYST simulation software is the most popular to analyze the detailed performance of the plant in field conditions. It can be used for many ways, for example, to investigate different loads on the system, estimate the size of the system, determine the optimal size of the panel, and assess the energy production in the system Various other capabilities and options available in the PVSYST software simulation can be seen in [ 7 ].
It is used for different designs and sizes of the systems. It can evaluate monthly production and performance. It also performs economic evaluation of the PV system at the design stage itself. Its application performs a detailed simulation and also shading analysis according to several dozens of variables.
The limitation of the software is that it can compute only a single layer of PV module. This means that if there are two layers of PV modules, one above the other, the software has no provision or option to compute the solar energy.
The data For the grid-connected system, the basic input and model parameters required for modeling are the following - PV component database, grid inverter database, geographical site information, and monthly meteorological data for horizontal global irradiance and temperature [ 7 ].